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Summary of animal safety studies with amino acids

 

Amino Acid study period/animal species Peer-reviewed articles
Monosodium Glutamate Rat Principles for the safety assessment of food additives and contaminants in food. World  Health  Organization,  International  Program  on Chemical  Safety  in Cooperation with the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Geneva, Environmental Health Criteria 70 (1987).
L-Glutamine 13wks / Rat Tsubuku, S., Hatayama, K., Mawatari, K., Smriga, M. & Kimura, T. (2004) Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-glutamine in rats. Int J Toxicol 23: 107-112.
L-Arginine 13wks / Rat
13wks / Pig
Anonymous (2004) Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-arginine in rats. Int J Toxicol 23: 101-105.

Amino Acids. 2015 Feb 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine in pigs.
Hu S1, Li X, Rezaei R, Meininger CJ, McNeal CJ, Wu G.
1Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.
L-Valine 13wks / Rat Tsubuku, S., Hatayama, K., Katsumata, T., Nishimura, N., Mawatari, K., Smriga, M. & Kimura, T. (2004) Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of branched-chain amino acids in rats. Int J Toxicol 23: 119-126
L-Leucine 13wks / Rat  Tsubuku, S., Hatayama, K., Katsumata, T., Nishimura, N., Mawatari, K., Smriga, M. & Kimura, T. (2004) Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of branched-chain amino acids in rats. Int J Toxicol 23: 119-126
L-Isoleucine 13wks / Rat  Tsubuku, S., Hatayama, K., Katsumata, T., Nishimura, N., Mawatari, K., Smriga, M. & Kimura, T. (2004) Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of branched-chain amino acids in rats. Int J Toxicol 23: 119-126
L-Lysine
(L-Lysine HCl)
13wks / Rat Tsubuku, S., Mochizuki, M., Mawatari, K., Smriga, M. & Kimura, T. (2004) Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-lysine hydrochloride in rats. Int J Toxicol 23: 113-118.
L-Alanine 4wks / Rat A 4-week oral toxicity study of L-alanine in rats with a recovery period of 2 weeks
Vol.1, No.2, p.63-72
Mami Aoki , Masahiro Mochizuki , Toshiya Okamura , Kazuhisa Hatayama , Atsushi Nakamura , Koji Morishita 
Released: October 23, 2014
Fundamental Toxicological Sciences
DL-Alanine 26wks / Rat Fu-ho C. Chow, M.Irene Dysart, Dwayne W. Hamar, Lon D. Lewis, and Robert H. Udall (1976)
Alanine : A Toxicity Study
Tosicology and Applied Pharmacology 37,491-497
L-Asparagine 13wks / Rat Yokohira, M., Hosokawa, K., Yamakawa, K., Hashimoto, N., Suzuki, S., Matsuda, Y., Saoo, K., Kuno, T. & Imaida, K. (2008) A 90-day toxicity study of L-asparagine, a food additive, in F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol 46: 2568-2572.
L-Asparatic Acid 13wks / Rat Tada, Y., Yano, N., Takahashi, H., Yuzawa, K., Ando, H., Kubo, Y., Nagasawa, A., Uehara, S., Ogata, A. & Nakae, D. (2008) Toxic effects of l-aspartic acid at high dose levels on kidneys and salivary glands in Fischer 344 rats detected in a 90-day feeding study. Food Chem Toxicol 46: 2789-2795.
L-Cystein(Monohydrochloride) 4wks / Rat
4wks / Rat
Sawamoto.O., Kyo, S., Kaneda,S., Harada, M., Kishimoto, S., Koshitani, O., Kurisu, K., Nakashima, Y. (2003) Four-week intravenous repeated dose toxicity study of L-systeine in male rats. The Journal of toxicological science 28: 95-107
Glycine
(amino acetic acid)
4wks / Rat A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration
Yusuke Shibui,1,* Tadashi Miwa,1,* Mayumi Yamashita,1 Keigi Chin,1 and Terutaka Kodama1
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology(Dec 2013; 26(4): 405–412)
L-Histidine 13wks / Rat Ikezaki, S., Nishikawa, A., Furukawa, F., Imazawa, T., Enami, T., Mitsui, M. & Takahashi, M. (1994) [13-week subchronic toxicity study of L-histidine monohydrochloride in F344 rats]. Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku: 57-63.
DL-Methionine 100days / Pig Fau D, Delhomme B, Bourdon D, Rerat A.(1980) Enzymatic activities in the liver, and muscle nucleic acids, in swine receiving an unbalanced diet with an exvedd of methionine for 100 days. Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des sciences. Serie D, Sciences naturelles 291 565-568
L-Methionine 2years / Rat
4wks / Rat
Peret J.(1984) Effects of hight protein or excess methionine diet ingested for 2 years. Federation Proceedings 43: Abstract2267. Meeting Info.: 68th Annual meeting of the American societies for experimental Biology. 
L-Methionine  4wks / Rat “A 4-Week Toxicity Study of Methionine in Male Rats”
  Authors: Keigi Chin, Sakino Toue, Yasuko Kawamata, Akiko Watanabe, Tadashi Miwa, Miro Smriga, Ryosei Sakai
(International journal of toxicology. May 2015;34(3):233-241.)
L-Phenylalanine 4wks / Rat 28-Day dietary toxicity study of L-phenylalanine in rats
Vol.1, No.2, p.29-38
Yusuke Shibui , Tadashi Miwa , Terutaka Kodama , Akinori Gonsho 
Released: September 27, 2014
Fundamental Toxicological Sciences(Vol.1, No.2, 29-38,2014)
L-Proline 13wks / Rat Tada, Y., Yano, N., Takahashi, H., Yuzawa, K., Ando, H., Kubo, Y., Nagasawa, A., Ohashi, N., Ogata, A. & Nakae, D. (2010) Toxicological evaluation of L-proline in a 90-day feeding study with Fischer 344 rats. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 58: 114-120.
L-Serine 13wks / Rat
13wks / Rat
Kaneko, I., Han, L., Liu, T., Li, J., Zhao, Y., Li, C., Yi, Y., Liang, A. & Hayamizu, K. (2009) A 13-week subchronic oral toxicity study of L-serine in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 47: 2356-2360.

Tada, Y., Yano, N., Takahashi, H., Yuzawa, K., Ando, H., Kubo, Y., Nagasawa, A., Chin, K., Kawamata, Y. et al. (2010) A 90-day Feeding Toxicity Study of l-Serine in Male and Female Fischer 344 Rats. J Toxicol Pathol 23: 39-47.
L-Threonine 13wks / Rat A 13-week feeding toxicity study of L-threonine in rats with a recovery period of 5 weeks
Vol.1, No.2, p.49-62
Mami Aoki , Shigeru Ishida , Hideki Fukuzumi , Koji Morishita 
Released: October 23, 2014
Fundamental Toxicological Sciences
L-Tryptophan 13wks / Rat  Pharmacology. 1991;42(6):349-60.
Effect of chronic dietary treatment with L-tryptophan on the development of cold-induced hypertension in rats.
Riesselmann A, Baron A, Fregly MJ, Cade JR.
L-Ornithine Monohydrochloride 13wks / Rat Genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity of L-ornithine monohydrochloride.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013 Dec;67(3):360-71.